Babette M. Benken was an assistant professor with a joint appointment (Department of Mathematics & Statistics, Department of Teacher Development & Educational Studies) at Oakland University at the time of the study presented in this article. She is currently an assistant professor in the Department of Mathematics & Statistics at California State University, Long Beach. Her research interests include exploring models of mathematics teacher education, generating innovative pedagogy that facilitates conceptual understanding of mathematics, and investigating the role of the teacher and her beliefs in student learning and practice.


Nancy Brown is an assistant professor in the School of Education and Human Services at Oakland University, where she works in teacher education at all levels in the Department of Teacher Development & Educational Studies.

Her research interests include examining the intersection of content and pedagogy and the role that orientation plays in a teacher's practice, as well as the impact of teaching in diverse contexts.